Does Protein Powder Make You Gain Weight? Here’s What the Studies Say.

Protein is a critical macronutrient that plays a pivotal role in the maintenance and growth of muscle tissue. It’s widely recognized that for individuals aiming for weight gain, particularly muscle mass gain, a high-protein diet is recommended (1).

Protein powders, such as whey, casein, or plant-based proteins, offer a convenient and efficient way to increase protein intake. A study by Cintineo et al. (2018) found that protein supplementation, in combination with resistance exercise, was significantly associated with changes in muscle strength and size (2). Therefore, consuming protein powders can enhance the process of muscle hypertrophy, leading to weight gain.

Timing of protein intake is also an important factor when using protein powders for weight gain. Consuming protein immediately after a workout has been shown to stimulate muscle protein synthesis more effectively than at other times (3). This ‘anabolic window’ period, as it’s often called, allows for optimum muscle recovery and growth. However, the overall daily protein intake remains a crucial factor regardless of timing (4).

When it comes to the amount of protein needed for weight gain, recommendations vary based on individual goals and physical activity levels. The general guideline for daily protein intake is 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight for adults (5). However, athletes and those looking to gain weight through muscle growth may require more. The International Society of Sports Nutrition suggests a range of 1.4-2.0g/kg/day (6).

While protein powders can aid in weight gain, it’s important to consider them as supplements to a balanced diet, rather than the primary source of nutrition. Whole foods provide a broader range of nutrients, including fiber, vitamins, and minerals, that aren’t typically found in protein powders (7). Therefore, the integration of protein powders should complement a diet rich in whole foods.

As with all dietary supplements, potential risks associated with excessive protein consumption should be considered. High protein intake can exacerbate pre-existing kidney conditions and may lead to digestive issues (8). Furthermore, not all protein powders are created equal; some may contain added sugars, artificial sweeteners, or allergens, so it’s essential to review the ingredient list thoroughly (9).

In summary, protein powders, when used appropriately, can be a potent tool in a weight-gain strategy, particularly when the aim is to increase muscle mass. By paying attention to protein type, intake timing, and daily quantity, and by integrating protein powders into a balanced diet, individuals can optimize their potential for healthy weight gain.


  1. Morton RW, Murphy KT, McKellar SR, Schoenfeld BJ, Henselmans M, Helms E, Aragon AA, Devries MC, Banfield L, Krieger JW, Phillips SM. (2018). A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults. Br J Sports Med. 52(6):376-384.
  2. Cintineo HP, Arent MA, Antonio J, Arent SM. (2018). Effects of Protein Supplementation on Performance and Recovery in Resistance and Endurance Training. Front Nutr. 5:83.
  3. Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ. (2013). Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 10(1):5.
  4. Areta JL, Burke LM, Ross ML, Camera DM, West DW, Broad EM, Jeacocke NA, Moore DR, Stellingwerff T, Phillips SM, Hawley JA, Coffey VG. (2013). Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis. J Physiol. 591(9):2319-2331.
  5. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Evaluation of the Addition of Ingredients New to Infant Formula. (2004). Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).
  6. Jäger R, Kerksick CM, Campbell BI, Cribb PJ, Wells SD, Skwiat TM, Purpura M, Ziegenfuss TN, Ferrando AA, Arent SM, Smith-Ryan AE, Stout JR, Arciero PJ, Ormsbee MJ, Taylor LW, Wilborn CD, Kalman DS, Kreider RB, Willoughby DS, Hoffman JR, Krzykowski JL, Antonio J. (2017). International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 14:20.
  7. Millward DJ. (2012). Identifying recommended dietary allowances for protein and amino acids: a critique of the 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU report. Br J Nutr. 108 Suppl 2:S3-21.
  8. Martin WF, Armstrong LE, Rodriguez NR. (2005). Dietary protein intake and renal function. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2:25.
  9. Egan B. (2016). Protein intake for athletes and active adults: Current concepts and controversies. Nutr Bull. 41(3):202-213.